François Boucher was born in the autumn of 1703, Rue de la Verrerie, 11th district of Paris, into the family of a modest painter and designer, Nicolas. From his father Boucher received a broad artistic training and education, however Nicolas soon realized that his son would need the supervision of a more skilled artist to fully master his talents. Thus in 1720, when Boucher turned seventeen, he entered the studio of François Lemoyne, a rising figure in art and soon to be a lead promoter of the Rococo genre. However, after only a handful of months Boucher decided that Lemoyne was a poor teacher and left the studio. He found work almost immediately in the workshop of Jean-François Cars, whom he found through an acquaintance. Cars ran an engraving business, and the young Boucher was soon preoccupied with a wide variety of tasks such as designing frontispieces, coats of arms and communion cards. It was through his work at the workshop that Boucher received his first major commission from Jean de Julienne, a friend of the artist Antoine Watteau. Julienne was so impressed with Boucher’s talents that he hired him to assist with the engraving of 125 of Watteau’s most famous drawings. Despite this workload, however, Boucher still managed to devote much time to painting, and in 1723 secured the coveted Prix de Rome, winning him a place in the Académie de France in Rome. Unfortunately for Boucher, at this time the Academy was either unable or reluctant to finance his trip, and he did not depart Paris until 1727. Information on his stay in Italy is limited, although it’s noted that Boucher was somewhat unimpressed by both the country and the Académie. It is speculated that Boucher was more interested in the career prospects his being a student at the Académie de France would bring him than anything else. By 1731 his term at the school had ended and he was back in Paris and hard at work trying to gain admittance to the Academy. Three years hence he succeeded after his Rinaldo and Armida (1734) was accepted as his entry piece. In 1733 Boucher married what was essentially to become his chief model, seventeen-year-old Marie-Jeanne Buseau. Although the couple had three children and remained on good terms throughout their lives together, there were frequent infidelities on both sides. Boucher’s fame skyrocketed when the Salon reopened in 1737 and he submitted his Four Seasons pastorals (signed 1755), which gained him universal recognition and invited a flow of commissions. Sadly, this was also the year that Boucher’s first teacher, Lemoyne, committed suicide after the death of his wife. For the next two decades Boucher enjoyed an interval of constant success as his work, be it paintings, tapestries or interior décor, was in high demand from aristocratic and royal patrons. Arguably the most prominent of these was Madame de Pompadour, who, as mistress of the French King since 1745, commissioned a plethora of artistic projects from Boucher. The most famous of his surviving works done for his patroness is a series of portraits, among these Portrait of Madame de Pompadour (1756), Portrait of Marquise de Pompadour (1758) and Portrait of Marquise de Pompadour (1759). In 1752 Boucher managed to fulfill his ambition of acquiring his own studio at the Louvre. At this point in time he was faced with such an overwhelming amount of work and commissions that he was obliged to hire assistants. Unfortunately, his three favorite students were neither able to help nor succeed him. His son lacked the talent of his father, and his two sons-in-law, Baudouin and Deshays, both died young before their potential could be realized. By this time Boucher was past his peak. A new shift in taste towards Neo-Classicism, championed by Diderot, brought with it a wave of criticism for the Rococo style, with Boucher naturally becoming the prime target of this movement. To make matters worse, by the mid-50s his eyesight was beginning to fail. However, Boucher never conformed to Neo-Classicism and continued to draw in the style that had won him fame despite increasingly harsh condemnation from critics. His work was still so high in demand that he was having trouble keeping up with commissions. In addition to this, he succeeded Jean-Baptiste Oudry as director of the Gobelins tapestry factory in 1755. Even after the death of his chief patroness, Madame de Pompadour, in 1764, Boucher continued to receive royal protection, and a year hence Marquis de Marigny, brother to Madame Pompadour, promoted Boucher into the post of King’s Painter following the death of Carle van Loo. Simultaneously, Boucher took up the now vacant position as Director of the Academy. Although he was in poor health by this time, Boucher’s productivity was surprisingly unaffected. He continued to paint commissions and exhibit his works at the Salon, much to the fury of Diderot. However, even Diderot was obliged to acknowledge the unabated commitment and energy of the old artist after his last exhibition at the Salon in 1769, at which point Boucher was in such bad shape that he was forced to refuse the offer of being an honorary associate member of the Academy of St. Petersburg. Boucher died a year later on May 30 1770 in his studio at the Louvre. Biography by Sergey Mataev Bibliography: Boucher by David Wakefield. Chaucer Press, 2006. Drawings of Francois Boucher by Editors of Scala Publishers. Scala Publishers, 2006. Francois Boucher, 1703-1770 by Alastair Laing. Harry N Abrams, 1986. Making Up the Rococo: François Boucher and His Critics by Melissa Hyde. Getty Publications, 2006. Francois Boucher: Seductive Visions by Jo Hedley. Paul Holberton Publishing, 2007. Rethinking Boucher by Melissa Hyde, Mark Ledbury. Getty Publications, 2006. Great Artists of the Western World: The French Rococo: Antoine Watteau, J.B.S. Chardin, Francois Boucher, J.H. Fragonard by Clive; Lyon, Sue, Gregory. Marshall Cavendish, 1990.
法国画家布歇是洛可可艺术的巨匠之一。洛可可艺术的轻松活泼风格是18世纪美术的主要潮流。除了宁芙和女神的性感绘画之外，布歇还活跃在壁毯草图设计、陶瓷器设计、舞台美术等其它艺术领域。这一切都表现出一种豪华和雅致，可以说这就是法国旧体制最后辉煌日子里的奢华缩影。 在布歇的作品中，有几幅令人叹为观止的华丽绘画是在路易十五的爱妾蓬巴杜夫人援助下创作的。但很多人认为布歇与宫廷人物关系的亲近是一种堕落和颓废，这也导致后来人们对他作品评价的降低。 1703年 9月29日，出生于巴黎。父亲尼古拉是画师兼装饰家。 1717年 开始在父亲的工作室里学习。 1721年 短时间师从于．F勒穆瓦纳。 1723年 获得罗马奖，但未能获得奖学金。 1727年 去罗马旅行。 1731年 回到巴黎。作为历史画家获得皇家美术学院认可。 1733年 同玛丽—让．比乌佐结婚。他们的孩子是让—伊丽莎白—维克托瓦尔《约1735年出生)，于斯特—纳坦(约1736年出生)、玛丽—埃米尔(约1740年出生)。 1734年 成为皇家美术学院正式院士。 1735年 从王室首次获得订件，创作凡尔赛害“王妃大厅”的天顶画。 1737年 被选为皇家美术学院的正教授。 1748年 与蓬巴杜夫人开始了密切交往，蓬巴杜夫人成为他最有力的资助者。 1755年 被任命为戈布兰壁毯工厂监督。 1765年 被任命为国王的首席画家。被推选为皇家美术学院貌长。 1768年 辞去皇家美术学院院长职位。 1770年 5月30日．在卢浮富自己的房间里去世。被安葬在圣日尔曼洛克塞洛瓦圣堂。 1703年9月29日，弗朗索瓦·布歇出生于巴黎。他的父亲尼古拉也是画家，据当时的记录记载，他是圣路加公会美术学院的画师和装饰家。但他作为画家似乎并未获得成功，其多数收入来源于贩卖版画和其它绘画材料。对于布歇的少年时代我们知之甚少，但可以想象，他从小便在父亲的工作室里帮忙。由于父亲多才多艺，这种帮忙本身便是有益的学习。除了其它工作之外，从书籍插图到徽章设计、版画，尼古拉还从事着与艺术有关的各种工作。通过这些工作，布歇获得了接触其将来职业的机会。尼古拉发现儿子的才气之后，将他送到当时的一位一流装饰画家—F．勒穆瓦纳(1688—1737年)画室学习。从父亲这个雄心勃勃的选择上可以看出，尼古拉对自己的儿子抱有很高的期望。而当时，布歇在勒穆瓦纳的画室里只呆了几个月时间，后来，这位年长的画家谴责布歇时说，“对自己的这个徒弟几乎没有兴趣”。但这个短暂的学习对布歇树立起自己的风格产生了重大影响。 17岁那年，年轻的布歇进入经营商业版画的J．F．卡尔(166l-1730年)工作室。布歇是为了父亲转到这项工作上来的。简单看来，这像是一种倒退，但新的工作锻炼了布歇在装饰艺术方面的技术，同时为他带来了结识众多具有影响力的资助者的机会。而布歇首次得到的重大工作也不是绘画，而是系列版画作品的创作。收藏家J．D．于连十分钦佩年轻的布歇的超群技术，委托他将J．A．华托(1684—1721年)的几幅杰作制成版画。同样，对于布歇而言，这一工作也是一个宝贵的经历。华托描绘乡间牧歌股生活的作品，给处于艺术发展阶段的布歇的风格带来了强烈影响。尽管布歇作为版画家获得了很高评价，但当时他无疑还是皇家美术学院的学生。因为布歇在1723年获得了皇家美术学院的罗马奖(获此荣誉被视为迈向成功的第一步)。罗马奖的获奖者通常将获得到设于罗马的法国美术学院留学的通行证，但由于美术学院当时没有空位，布歇未能获得奖学金，他继续在卡尔的工作室里工作。但布歇继续进行着绘画创作，在1725年的青年艺术家展览会上展出的作品受到了好评。 1727年，布歇前往意大利长期旅行。当时人们仍然认为，这是年轻艺术家学习中的重要一环。尽管在旅居期间健康状况屡屡出现问题，但布歇仍然在意大利逗留了四年时间(1727—1731年)。虽然布歇本人在后来认为自己的意大利旅居时期并未获得什么收获，但十分显然，他从意大利的艺术、特别是意大利巴洛克巨匠那里学到了很多东西。此外，布歇在法国艺术家社团中还得到了一些知己，其中特别值得一提的是设于罗马的法国美术学院院长尼古拉·沃鲁盖尔(1668—1737年)。沃鲁盖尔在给家里的信中提到了布歇抵达美术学院时的情况“还有一个名叫布歇的人，他虽然年轻却才能非凡。事实上已经不是我们这里主建筑物的另一座建筑物中有一间脏乱的小屋，我把他塞到了那里”。布歇回到巴黎之后，意大利旅行给他带来的效果便清楚的显现出来。1731年，布歇作为“历史画和情节画家”得到了皇家美术学院的承认，三年后，他的作品《里纳尔多与阿尔米达》获得好评，布歇也因此成为皇家美术学院院士。他还获得了正式的美术学院教师职位，继副教授(1735年)之后，他还被推选为教授(1737年)。对于当时的布歇而言，这个为他带来金钱的职位非常重要。l733年，布歇同l7岁的玛丽—让·比乌佐(1716—1786年以后)结婚，他们养育了三个孩子(两女一男)。后来，这两个女儿都嫁给了布歇的学生，他们的儿子也成了艺术家。玛丽—让为布歇的艺术发挥了很大作用，她是布歇绘画中的主要模特，布歇以她为原型，在画布上描绘出极其迷人的裸体宁芙和女神形象。玛丽—让自己也是画家，在丈夫的画室里做临摹画家。布歇夫妇的婚姻生活中摩擦不断，他们追随当时社会在道德方面比较宽松的潮流，都有婚外恋情，但在真正意义上，这些并没有威胁到他们的夫妻关系。而布歇的最大烦恼却是妻子的浪费毛病。