Salvador Dali was a celebrated surrealist artist of the 20th Century. Dali possessed excellent painting skills – his works were technically brilliant – and an extraordinary imagination. The artist was also an excellent showman, and had a love for outrageous and provocative acts.
Dali was born May 11, 1904, in Figueras, Catalonia, Spain. His talent for drawing was revealed at an early age. The artist’s father, a public notary, was a strict disciplinarian and viewed his son’s vocation less-than-enthusiastically, and it was Dali’s mother who encouraged him to pursue art.
In 1918, at the age of 14, the painter had his first exhibition at the theatre-hall in Figueras. This was the same hall that Dali would later purchase and convert into his Theatre-Museum. In 1919, Dali published articles on the old masters in a local magazine, showing his understanding of the theory and history of art. At this time, he also published some of his poetry.
Dali's mother died in February of 1921, affecting the young man strongly. Dali had just graduated high school, passing his exams with difficulty, and begged his father to allow him to go study at the Academy of Art in Madrid. Although initially reluctant, his father relented.
However, his professors at the Academy were a disappointment to Dali. They were focused primarily on the latest trends in art: Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Pointillism, Cubism, etc. Dali, however, found these techniques easy to master, and wanted to be taught classical academic painting. His works of the period reflect his experiments with contemporary techniques: Self-Portrait (1921), Portrait of My Father (1920-1921) and Self-Portrait with the Neck of Raphael (1920-1921) are Impressionist works. Nude in a Landscape (1922-1923) was painted in a Pointillist manner. Portrait of the Cellist Ricardo Pichot (1920) and Portrait of Luis Bunuel (1924) lean closer towards Post-Impressionism. Meanwhile, Venus and Amorini (1925), Figure on the Rocks/Sleeping Woman (1926) and similar works are executed in the Cubist style.
At the Academy, Dali would meet many of his future friends and surrealist colleagues, including Federico Garcia Lorca and Luis Bunuel.
In 1923, Dali was expelled from the academy for one year for criticizing his lecturers and "disturbing the peace." Later that year, in Gerona, the artist was arrested and detained by the police, for voicing radical political ideas. The artist would frequently espouse extreme political views during the early years of his career, ranging from communism and socialism, to anarchism, to monarchism. However, it is doubtful that Dali actually believed in any of these ideologies; rather, he took pleasure in shocking the public and his peers.
In 1925, the artist had his first solo exhibition at the Dalmau Gallery in Barcelona.
二十世纪最伟大的超现实主义画家。 萨尔瓦多.达利，1904年5月11日生于西班牙菲格拉斯，1989年1月23日逝世。西班牙超现实主义画家和版画家，以探索潜意识的意象著称。与毕加索、马蒂斯一起被认为是二十世纪最有代表性的三个画家。 他是一位具有卓越天才和想象力的画家 。在把梦境的主观世界变成客观而令人激动的形象方面，他对超现实主义、对二十世纪的艺术做出了严肃认真的贡献。达利的一生充满了传奇色彩。除了他的绘画，他的文章、他的囗才、他的动作、他的相貌、他的胡须和他的宣传才能。他用所有这一切，在各种各样的语言中造就了超现实主义这一个专有名词，去表示一种无理性的、色情的、疯狂的而且是时髦的艺术。达利的生活本身就是一个十足的超现实主义者，以至其它的超现实主义者对他的笃诚和绘画成就，抱有强烈的怀疑态度。主要的证据也许就是他那些绘画，没有人能够否认得了他那无尽的才能、想象能力或者他所显示的强烈信心。 达利年轻时在马德里和巴塞罗那学习美术，曾兼收并蓄多种艺术风格，显示出作为画家的非凡技能。但是，直到20世纪20年代末期，才由两件事情促使其画风日臻成熟。一是他发现了弗洛伊德的关于性爱对于潜意识意象的重要著作；二是他结交了一群才华横溢的巴黎超现实主义者，这群艺术家和作家努力证明人的潜意识是超乎理性之上的“更为重大的现实”。 为从潜意识心灵中产生意象，达利开始用一种自称为“偏执狂临界状态”的方法，在自己的身上诱发幻觉境界。达利发现这一方法后，画风异常迅速成熟，1929～1937年间所作的画使他成为世界最著名的超现实主义艺术家。 ================================================================= 达利的画常搜集梦幻中的表现题材，有些画题直接点题为"梦"。但他的"梦"与其他超现实主义画家画上所展现的"梦"的区别在于，达利创造了一种真实感，还寄寓某些他所特别偏爱的内涵。其中主要的成分是性爱， 比如1929年他画的一幅《欲望的顺应》、1935年的《雾状的头盖骨鸡奸三角钢琴》皆是如此；到1951年，他又画了《年轻妇女被她自己的贞洁所鸡奸》等。除此之外，他还爱画一些现代化了的宗教题材。他说过："世上唯一的智者是上帝"，这在1950～1970年代作得很多，著名的有1951年的《圣徒约翰殉难》、1955年的《最后的晚餐》。这种集中以性爱和宗教为主题的作品，大致作于第二次世界大战之后。在战前虽也有些表现人类欲望的"梦"画，但没有这个时期来得狂热。 《哥伦布之梦》取材于15世纪末哥伦布亲率三艘中世纪后期的木帆船，顶着惊涛骇浪，经过70天旅程，终于到达美洲巴哈马群岛的一段史实。哥伦布为了感谢上帝，将该岛命名为"圣萨尔瓦多"意即"救世主"。 达利对于这段历史作了神奇的构思，画上出现许多为古代人的仪仗队伍所习用的旗幡，有十字架、耶稣像和圣母画像等旗幡。可是人物予以现代化（这是他自50年代以来习用的手法）。表现他们登岸时的情景。木帆船在画上显得过于小了。象一条小驳船。旗幡和无尽无休的十字架则出现在虚幻的一个环境中。茫茫大海，有如白皑皑的冰雪之地。一些裸体与半裸体的人浸泡在水中。远处的船也正在源源不断地随来，由于风雪交加,一切似乎是模糊的，处在雾蒙蒙的混沌之中。 它不是一幅实景，是一种意象，是人在梦中常常不够具体的意象。这种超乎现实的真实，令观者在欣赏中感到迷惑难解。这里没有时间与空间的制约。主观上的虚拟性加强了情景的反理性因素。 达利在描绘这类题材时，尤其强调直觉性，或者同时运用意识流，展现人生梦中所能组合的一切。有的直接是从一个患有精神病的认知中或儿童心理的活动中抽取出来的。为了让人感到似是而非，他采取极端的自然主义手法刻画每一个细节，如这幅画上提拽木船的古代青年，旗幡上带有现代明星头像的圣母，浸入水中的侧面青年像，都是非常真实的。素描表现是细腻的，用色是恰到是处的。细致入微与荒诞不经纠缠在一起，一些内容几乎达到了以假乱真的地步。气氛独特，令人不可捉摸。这就是画家所要达到的目的。 达利认为，这个世界本来就是充满着重重矛盾，而解决这些矛盾的"最好办法是精神堕落和呆痴"。所以他总是把性、死亡、梦境与变态心理等作为其主要的描绘课题。《哥伦布之梦》表达了画家对西方现代社会的精神危机的逃避，希望让逝去的哥伦布再一次发现了人类的精神新大陆。
In the spring of 1926, Dali visited Pairs for the first time seeking to expand his artistic education beyond what the Madrid Academy offered him. There, he met Picasso, visited the Louvre and the Musee Grevin. Later that year, he was permanently expelled from the Academy, and was consequently conscripted into the Spanish military. He served for some 8 months, from February 1927 until October. That year, he also published "Saint Sebastian" and began developing an objective theory of aesthetics.
In 1928, he co-authored the Catalan Anti-Art Manifesto (called "Yellow Manifesto") with literary critic Lluis Montanya and art critic Sebastia Gasch. This document was to become the most influential statement of the Futurist, Cubist and Dadaist movements in Spain. Notable works of this period include Honey is Sweeter than Blood(1926), The Stinking Ass (1928) and The Lugubrious Game (1929).