Paul Gauguin French Painter 1848 AD - 1903 AD
Paul Gauguin was born in Paris, France to journalist Clovis Gauguin and Alina Maria Chazal, daughter of the half-Peruvian proto-socialist leader Flora Tristan, a feminist precursor. In 1851 the family left Paris for Peru, motivated by the political climate of the period. Clovis died on the voyage, leaving three-year old Paul, his mother and sister to fend for themselves. They lived for four years in Lima with Paul's uncle and his family. The imagery of Peru would later influence Gauguin in his art. At the age of seven, Gauguin and his family returned to France. They moved to Orléans to live with his grandfather. He soon learned French and excelled in his studies. At seventeen, Gauguin signed on as a pilot's assistant in the merchant marine to fulfill his required military service. Three years later, he joined the French navy where he stayed for two years. In 1871, Gauguin returned to Paris where he secured a job as a stockbroker. In 1873, he married a Danish woman, Mette-Sophie Gad. They had five children over the next ten years. I Raro te Oviri, 1891, Dallas Museum of ArtBy 1884 Gauguin had moved with his family to Copenhagen, Denmark, where he pursued a business career as a stockbroker. Driven to paint full-time, he returned to Paris in 1885, after his wife and her family asked him to leave. Gauguin outlived two of his children. Like his friend Vincent van Gogh, with whom in 1888 he spent nine weeks painting in Arles, Paul Gauguin experienced bouts of depression and at one time attempted suicide. He made several attempts to find a tropical paradise where he could 'live on fish and fruit' and paint in his increasingly primitive style, including short stays in Martinique and as a labourer on the Panama Canal construction; however, he was dismissed from his job after only two weeks. In 1891, Gauguin, frustrated by lack of recognition at home and financially destitute, sailed to the tropics to escape European civilization and "everything that is artificial and conventional". His time there, particularly in Tahiti and the Marquesas Islands, was the subject of much interest both then and in modern times due to his alleged sexual exploits. He was known to have had trysts with several peripubescent native girls, some of whom appear as subjects of his paintings. In 1903, due to a problem[clarification needed] with the church and the government, he was sentenced to three months in prison and fined. At that time he was being supported by the art dealer Ambroise Vollard. He died of syphilis before he could start the prison sentence. His body had been weakened by alcohol and a dissipated life. He was 54 years old. Gauguin died on 8 May 1903 and is buried in Calvary Cemetery (Cimetière Calvaire), Atuona, Hiva ‘Oa, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia.
保罗·高更(Paul Gauguin)是法国后印象派画家、雕塑家、陶艺家及版画家。1873 年高更开始绘画，并收藏印象派田园风光(20张)画家作品。他拥有毕沙罗（Pissarro）、马内（Manet）、雷诺阿（Renoir）、莫奈（Monet）、希斯里（Sisley）及塞尚（Cezanne）等人的作品。1876 年，高更有一幅作品入选巴黎沙龙；次年他作了第一件雕塑作品。渐渐地，高更越来越专注于艺术创作，他参加了最后四届印象派画展。 1883年成为职业画家。曾团结一批未成熟的青年画家组成蓬塔旺画派。1895年以后，因健康原因和经济支持中断，精神受到刺激，自杀未遂。他的艺术观点受象征主义观念驱使，不满足印象主义绘画。1897年创作的《我们从哪里来?我们是谁?我们往哪里去?》用梦幻的形式把读者引入似真非真的时空延续之中，就是这方面的典型之作。另一幅作品《两个塔希提妇女》追求表现的原始性，含有精致的趣味和艺术魅力。 高更的早期绘画，带有实验性，也很拘谨，令人联想起在巴比松画派（Barbizon School）影向下毕沙罗的作品。1880 年代早期，高更将笔触放松、变宽 ，赋予画面颤动的韵律特质，色彩略见后来发展的迹象，但仍很拘谨。他把颜色做块面处理，自由地加重色泽的明亮感：例如以鲜亮的蓝色画阴影，以红色画屋顶，而使之自背景中突出。 高更在技法上采用色彩平涂，注重和谐而不强调对比，《讲道以后的幻景》就是这种艺术处理的代表作。他的绘画风格与印象主义迥然不同，强烈的轮廓线以及用主观化色彩表现经过概括和简化了的形体，都服从于几何形图案，从而取得音乐性、节奏感和装饰效果。其理论和实践影响了一大批画家，被誉为继印象主义之后在法国画坛上产生重要影响的艺术革新者。